Anthephora pubescens


Scientific name

Synonyms

Anthephora abyssinica A. Rich.
Anthephora cenchroides (Hochst.) K. Schum. ex Engl.
Anthephora hochstetteri Nees ex Hochst.
Anthephora kotschyi Hochst.
Hypudaeurus cenchroides Hochst. ex A. Braun

Family/tribe

Family: Poaceae (alt. Gramineae) subfamily: Panicoideae tribe: Paniceae .

Common names

wool grass, borseltjiegras, bottle brush grass .

Morphological description

Perennial, with unbranched culms to 2 m, short sturdy rhizomes, and long, narrow basal leaves forming a leafy tuft 30-50 cm deep.  Leaf blades green to blue-green, flat, linear, 10-15 cm long and 3-5 mm wide, tapering to a soft point;  curling with drying, margins thickened, crinkled;  ligule membranous, to 6 mm long.  Inflorescence a straw coloured or dull purple false spike (cf. Cenchrus ciliaris ), 5-15 cm long, 0.5-1 cm wide, comprising clusters (glomerule, fascicle) of 3-11 spikelets surrounded by an involucre of stiff, narrowly elliptic bracts on reduced axis along a main axis;  spikelets about 6-11 mm long, densely pubescent, with lower glumes acuminate or shortly awned.  Fascicle size varies considerably with ecotype, averaging about 125,000/kg, and caryopses 1,000,000/kg.

Distribution

Native to or naturalised in:
Africa:  Angola, Botswana, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Somalia, South Africa (Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, Northern Cape, North West), Sudan, Uganda, Zimbabwe.
Asia:  Southern Iran (disjunct population, suggesting non-native).
A climax species, found in semi-arid and arid grassland and savannah , often on hillsides.

Uses/applications

For warm season grazing, also providing useful standover feed (foggage) into the cool season.  Sown in rows on sandy red soils in Republic of South Africa as a pasture/crop rotation.  Makes high quality hay .

Ecology

Soil requirements

Common on sandy or gravelly soils, sometimes loams, with pH from 6.3-7.2.  A. pubescens is not adapted to clay soils.  In cultivation, it is recommended for sands and sandy loams with pH from about 5.8 to neutral.  Grows on infertile soils and is more tolerant of low phosphorus levels than many other grasses.

Moisture

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Occurs in areas with rainfall from 175-950 mm, most collections being made between 350 and 500 mm.  It is extremely drought tolerant, but intolerant of waterlogging and flooding.  Normally recommended in areas with rainfall of 250-650 mm per year.

Temperature

Ignoring the disjunct population in Iran, A. pubescens extends from about 17ºN in the Sudan and Eritrea to 29ºS in South Africa, and to 2,100 m asl in Namibia.  This equates to average annual temperatures from about 16-28ºC, with heavy frosts at the lower end of the range.

Light

No information available.

Reproductive development

Flowers from December to April in South Africa.

Defoliation

Grazing must be carefully managed, as A. pubescens is extremely palatable and can be grazed out.  During severe grazing, tillers can be pulled from the ground.  The tillers that are ripped out are at the periphery of the tussock because the central ones have died/decomposed.  While grazing should be very light in the first season, a carrying capacity of 1 LSU per 4-5 ha (rainfall < 400mm) and 1 LSU per 2-3 ha (rainfall ±600mm) can be achieved in subsequent seasons.

Fire

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A. pubescens is tolerant of fire, with little adverse effect on regrowth and stimulated seed production.

Agronomy

Establishment

Seed may remain dormant for up to 9 months after harvest.  As with other panicoid species, this can be broken down quickly by removing the glumes and planting the caryopsis .  "Seed" or fascicles can be broadcast at 5 kg/ha onto an at least partially cultivated surface, or sown in rows at 4 kg/ha.  Seed should be placed on or near the soil surface, and compaction (rolling) during planting is vital.  A. pubescens establishes readily.

Fertiliser

Although it normally grows on fairly infertile soils, A. pubescens may respond to applications of 20-25 kg/ha P on very infertile soils, and to lime on more acid soils.

Compatibility (with other species)

A less competitive species than Eragrostis curvula .

Companion species

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Grasses:  Normally planted as a pure sward since most other subtropical grasses are not adapted to dry, sandy soils.
Legumes:  Chamaecrista rotundifolia , Stylosanthes guianensis var. intermedia, S. scabra at the higher end of the rainfall distribution.

Pests and diseases

No record.

Ability to spread

Although it has the potential to spread by adhering to the fur of animals, experience shows little inclination to natural spread.  Rhizomes are short and sturdy and an ineffective colonisation mechanism.  After 15 years, the crown may reach 50 cm diameter if gently grazed, and thereafter the edges fragment into a number of smaller sub-plants.

Weed potential

No reference found, but not likely to become a weed in grazed lands due to its high palatability .

Feeding value

Nutritive value

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Crude protein values range from about 7% (with 0.07 % P) in mature grass to 14% (with 62% IVDMD ) at 50% flowering.

Palatability/acceptability

It is very palatable and is sought by domestic animals and wildlife.

Toxicity

No record.

Production potential

Dry matter

Yields are mostly of the order of 3 t/ha DM under low rainfall conditions, and up to 9 t/ha DM under better conditions.  While production is generally about 30% lower than that for Cenchrus ciliaris , the 90% greater utilisation rate compensates.

Animal production

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No information available.

Genetics/breeding

Apomictic.  Chromosome base number for Anthephora, x = 9.

Seed production

Seed production is highest from a weed free crop.  Seed-heads are produced well above the leaf growth, facilitating ease of mechanical harvesting.  Emergence of seed-heads continues for about a month, with a peak 7 days after the first heads emerge.  Seed ripens fairly evenly on each head and can all be harvested at once.  Ripe seed can usually be harvested 28-32 days after emergence of the seed-head (i.e. 33-39 days after first head emergence).  With adequate water and fertilizer, two harvests per year are possible, once in early summer and once in autumn.  Seed yields vary from 70-120 kg/ha, and up to 175 kg/ha for hand-harvested seed.

Herbicide effects

No information available.

Strengths

  • Extremely palatable, high utilisation.
  • High quality feed (grazing, hay, foggage ).
  • Very drought tolerant.
  • Very cold tolerant.
  • Good seed production.
  • Not fertility-demanding.

Limitations

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Other comments

C4 photosynthetic pathway.

Selected references

Moolman, A., VanRooyen, N. and VanRooyen, M. (1996) The effect of drought stress on the dry matter production, growth rate, and biomass allocation Anthephora pubescens Nees. South African Journal of Botany, 62, 41-45.
O'Donnell, J.F., O'Farrell, R. and Hyde, K.W. (1973) Plant introduction and reseeding in the mulga zone. Tropical Grasslands, 7, 105-110.

Internet links

Cultivars

Cultivars

Country/date released

Details

'Wollie' South Africa From Swartruggens, North West Province, South Africa (26.6ºS, 26.7ºE, 1,300 m asl, rainfall 500 mm).  Selected by Agricol Seed from a commercial seed field of the "common" variety for a more uniform growth habit .

Promising accessions

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Promising accessions

Country

Details

SSW21A South Africa From North West Province, South Africa (27ºS, 24.7ºE, 1,200 m asl, rainfall 450-500 mm).  More widely adapted, higher biomass production, better regrowth and quality than the "common" variety.  Excellent heat tolerance.  Selected by Agricol Seed.
CPI 43713, Q 10665 Southern Queensland, Australia From Lephepe, Botswana (23.3ºS, 25.9ºE, 1,040 m asl, rainfall 500 mm).  Very good crown development and leaf production;  175 kg/ha seed production.  Flowers December to April at 26.4ºS.  Mostly rated as "too palatable".